Cholera: Causes, Symptom, Treatment And Prevention

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cholera

Cholera is an infectious disease. that causes severe watery diarrhea. which can lead to dehydration. and even death if untreated. It is caused by eating food. or drinking water contaminated. with a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae.

cholera

Cholera was prevalent. in the U.S. in the 1800s. Before modern water. and sewage treatment systems. eliminated its spread by contaminated water. Only about 10 cases. of cholera are reported each year in the U.S. and half of these are acquired abroad. Rarely, contaminated seafood has caused. cholera outbreaks. in the U.S. However. cholera outbreaks are still a serious problem. in other parts of the world. At least 150,000 cases are reported to the. World Health Organization each year.

The disease. is most common in places with. poor sanitation. crowding, war. and famine. Common locations include. parts of Africa. south Asia. and Latin America. If you are travelling to one of those areas. knowing the following cholera facts. Can help protect you and your family.

Cholera Causes.

Vibrio cholerae. The bacterium that causes cholera. is usually found. in food or water contaminated by faeces. from a person. with the infection. Common sources include.

  • Municipal water supplies.
  • Ice made from municipal water.
  • Foods and drinks sold by street vendors.
  • Vegetables grown with water containing human wastes.
  • Raw or under-cooked fish and seafood caught in waters polluted with sewage.
  • When a person consumes. the contaminated food or water. the bacteria release a toxin. in the intestines that produces severe diarrhea.
  • It is not likely you will catch cholera. just from casual contact with an infected person.

Cholera Symptoms.

Symptoms of cholera, can begin. as soon as a few hours. or as long as five days after infection. Often, symptoms are mild. But sometimes. they are very serious. About one in 20 people infected. have severe watery diarrhea. accompanied by vomiting. which can quickly lead to dehydration. Although many infected people. May have minimal or no symptoms. They can still contribute to spread of the infection.

cholera

Signs and symptoms of dehydration include.

  • Rapid heart rate Loss of skin elasticity. (the ability to return to original position quickly if pinched).
  • Dry mucous membranes. including the inside of the mouth. Throat, nose, and eyelids.
  • Low blood pressure.
  • Thirst Muscle cramps.
    If not treated. Dehydration can lead to shock. and death in a matter of hours.

Cholera Treatment and Prevention.

Although, there is a vaccine against cholera. the CDC and World Health Organisation. don’t normally recommend it. because it may not protect. up to half of the people. who receive it. and it lasts only a few months. However. you can protect yourself and your family. by using only water that has been boiled. water that has been chemically disinfected. or bottled water. Be sure to use the bottled. boiled. or chemically disinfected water. for the following purposes:

  • Drinking.
  • Preparing food or drinks.
  • Washing your face and hands.
  • Making ice.
  • Washing dishes and utensils. that you use to eat or prepare food.
  • Brushing your teeth.
  • Washing fruits and vegetables.

To disinfect your own water. boil it for one minute. (or 3 minutes at higher elevations). or filter it and use a commercial chemical disinfectant. You should also avoid raw foods. including the following.

  • Unpeeled fruits and vegetables.
  • Unpasteurised milk and milk products.
  • Raw or undercooked meat or shellfish.
  • Fish caught in tropical reefs, which may be contaminated.

If you develop severe. watery diarrhea and vomiting. Particularly after eating raw shellfish. or traveling to a country. where cholera is epidemic. seek medical help immediately. Cholera is highly treatable. but because dehydration can happen quickly. It’s important to get cholera treatment right away.

Hydration is. the mainstay of treatment for cholera. Depending on. How severe the diarrhea is. Treatment will consist of oral. or intravenous solutions to replace lost fluids. Antibiotics, which kill the bacteria. are not part of emergency treatment. for mild cases. But they can reduce the duration of diarrhea. By half and also reduce the excretion of the bacteria. thus helping. To prevent the spread of the disease.

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